Single National Curriculum (SNC)
This curriculum is used as a single vision. It is based on the concept which implies education for all. It consists of one system of curriculum for all classes. The medium of instructions is same for all the grades from class 1 to 12.
What is Curriculum?
Curriculum is actually a planned series of syllabus or in other word curriculum is anything comprising a course of study in any institution school or college.
Curriculum development in Pakistan
Pakistan governed under the Islamic, democratic, federal, constitution of 1973 is comprised of four autonomous provinces; Punjab, Sindh, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Baluchistan.
Education in Pakistan
Pakistan is essentially a provincial affair. Education is considered to be vital source of nation-building. In order of ensure national cohesion, integration and preservation of the ideological foundation of the State, certain educational functions are the responsibilities include: curriculum, syllabus, planning, policy and educational standards.
In Pakistan, the education system is three-tier:
- Elementary (grade 1-8):
Primary stage: It comprises classes I to V and enrolls student of age –group 5+ to 9+
Middle stage: A three years Middle stage consists of classes VI to VIII corresponding to age-group 10+ to 12+
2. Secondary (grade 9 – 12) has two stages
3. University programs
- leading to graduate and advanced degrees
Phases of Single National Curriculum
Single National Curriculum is being developed in three phases:
Phase I: Development of SNC and textbooks Pre I-V (March 2021)
Phase II: Development of SNC and textbooks VI-VIII (March 2022)
Phase III: Development of SNC and textbooks IX-XII (March 2023)
The main aims of this national curriculum includes;
- It gives rigorous and upgraded standards to create a sense of interactions between what is being taught in all schools at a time
- It gives surety about the essentials of knowledge which are provided to the students at all stages
- The teachers are at more freedom to teach the students by using their professional skills and experiences
- It raises the inner potential of students to study. They can become better professionals in the future
- An education system for all, in terms of curriculum, means of education and a common platform
- Social harmony and national unity.
- Eliminate disparities in various disciplines.
- Equal opportunities for top social mobility
- Equality in education.
- Holistic development of children
- Inter-provincial mobility of teachers and students
One system of Education for all, in terms of curriculum, medium of instruction and a common platform of assessment which will ensure:
- All children have a fair opportunity to receive high quality education.
- Social Cohesion and National Integration.
- Alleviation of disparities in education content across the multiple streams.
- Equal opportunities for upward social mobility.
- Equity in education.
- Smooth inter-provincial mobility of teachers and students.
- Teachings of Quran and Sunnah.
- Vision of Quaid and Iqbal.
- Constitutional framework.
- National Policies, Aspirations and National Standards.
- Alignment with the goals & targets of SDG-4.
- Emerging international trends in teaching, learning & assessment.
- Outcomes based approach.
- Focus on Values, Life Skills Based and Inclusive Education.
- Respect & appreciation for different cultures & Religions in local and global context.
- Promotion of intellectual, spiritual, aesthetic, emotional, social and physical development of learners.
- Move away from rote memorization & Focus on Project, Inquiry and Activity Based Learning.
- Development of 21st century skills including Analytical, Critical and Creative.
- Thinking. Use of Information & Communication Technology (ICT).
- Alignment with Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS)
Development Process of Single National Curriculum
- Pakistan Learners’ Standards comparison with Singapore, Malaysia/Indonesia, UK, Russia and Italy standards.
- These include an analysis of the Pakistani curriculum along with the Singapore and Cambridge curricula.
- An education system for all, in terms of curriculum, source of education and a common platform.
- All children have a fair and equal opportunity to receive a high quality education.
Salient Features of Single National Curriculum (SNC)
- The Single National Curriculum is standards, benchmarks and outcomes based across all subjects. Curriculum in which learning outcomes were not developed for each subject curriculum.
- In 2006, the subject of Islamiat was integrated with General Knowledge up to grade 2.
- From grade 3, Islamiat began as a separate subject.
- In the Single National Curriculum (SNC) Islamiat starts from grade 1 as a separate subject up to grade 12.
- The subject of Ethics was designated for non-Muslim students in Islamiyat from Grade 5 onwards.
- Now a new subject, religious education, has been introduced for non-Muslim students from the first grade for Pakistan’s five minority groups.
- The content of the SNC for Math and Science has been aligned to the TIMSS content framework.
- The content is aligned to the international commitments like SDG 4.
- The Single National Curriculum (SNC) focuses on development of analytical, critical and creative thinking through a more activities-based.
- Use of ICT is integrated in the curriculum for the first time.
- The 2006 curriculum was implemented only in government schools and some low-cost private schools.
- The Single National Curriculum (SNC) will be implemented across the board in all schools of Pakistan including government and private schools and Deeni Madaris.
- The Single National Curriculum (SNC) focusses on equipping learners with principles and attributes.
Consultation with Stakeholders
- Public sector.
- private sector.
- Federal Government Educational Institutions Cantts & Garrisons.
- Deeni Madaris.
- Cambridge University UK for English, Math’s and Science.
- LUMS and AKU-IED
- All federating units.
Workshops and National Conference
- National workshops on Life-Skills Based Education, Critical Thinking and SDG-4.
- Four-Day Provincial and Area workshops in all federating units.
- The inputs and feedback received was incorporated in the SNC.
- Four-Day National Conference on Single National Curriculum from February 11-14, 2020 and the draft was finalized and signed by all the representatives from Federating Units, FGEIs, Private Sector, and Ittehad Tanzimat ul Madaris Pakistan.
Process of curriculum development in Pakistan
in Pakistan curriculum syllabus, planning, policy centers of excellence and standards of education are on the concurrent list of the constitution of Pakistan. The federal ministry of education has been empowered through the federal supervision of curriculum.
Quality Challenges of Single National Curriculum (SNC)
- Bureau of Curriculum
- Textbook Boards
- Teacher Training Institutions (in-service and pre-services)
- Boards of Intermediate and Secondary Education (BISE) X and XII
- National Education Assessment System (IV and VIII) and provincial education
- Assessment centers (PEAC)
- Punjab Examination Commission (PEC) (V and VIII) restricted to the province of Punjab.
- Subject-Wise Salient Features
The first five institutions are present in every province of Pakistan. Punjab is the only province which has started its examination commission for grades five and eight. These institutions are responsible for quality education with direct liaison with the Ministry of Education to assess the quality of teaching, quality education and teaching process, textbook development, curriculum and reform inputs.
Early Childhood Care and Education (Pre-I)
The ECCE curriculum has been revised keeping in view the local culture and environment alongside modern trends in ECCE and national & international commitments. In this way ECCE is one of the best investments a country. Can create human resource development, promote gender equality and social cohesion.
For disadvantaged children, ECCE plays an important role in compensating for the disadvantages in the family and combating educational inequalities.
Basic learning areas include
- personal and social development
- language & literacy
- basic mathematical concepts
- world around us
- physical development (newly added)
- health, hygiene & safety
- creative arts
- Holistic development of a child through emphasis on knowledge, skills and positive attitudes
- Personality development through practice of patience, tolerance, empathy and citizenship.
- Respecting diversity of gender, religion, colour, cast, creed and people with special needs.
- Competencies on child security and safety and link to technology.
- Integration of 21st century skills
- Guidelines for teachers, materials developers and administrators
- Suggestions on ECCE materials, conducive environment and assessment
General Knowledge for Grade 1 – 3 (General Science and Social Studies)
- Integration of basic concepts of Science and Social Studies to serve as a bridge between Grade Pre-I to Grade 4.
- Fosters lifelong learning through development of inquiry and independent learning skills.
- Life-Skills including child protection.
- Includes activities for students to improve learning.
- Increased emphasis on positive attitudes for holistic development of students.
English Grade 1 – 5
- English as a subject should be taught as a language
- Addition of interactive and collaborative pedagogical strategies
- Guidelines for assessment along with scoring rubrics/marking schemes have been included for all four language skills including listening and speaking which was not included in curriculum 2006
- Many new themes added to guide the content development
Urdu Grade 1 – 5
- Focus on development of language skills and competencies
- Competencies of ‘speech’, ‘creative writing’ and ‘aesthetic sense’ have been added
- Integration of themes like patriotism, citizenship, promotion of social cohesion
- Creation of links between language learning and other subjects
- Promotion of culture and languages of Pakistan
- Understanding and application of critical media literacy
Islamiat Grade 1 – 5
- Islamiat is now a separate subject from grade 1 onwards.
- There were no competencies, standards and SLOs in the previous curriculum 2006. Now, these have been added in the SNC along with their definition.
- Outcomes based and activity-based curriculum. From passive to active learning.
- According to “Compulsory Teaching of the Holy Quran Act 2017” the SLOs have been added.
- Nazra Quran, a framework for reading of 200 Ahadith from I-XII has been added.
- Hifz of Surahs, framework of hifz 40 hadith from I-VIII has been added.
- Addition of two strands Husn-e-Muamlat o Muashrat and Islami Taleemat aur Dour-e-Hazir ke Taqazay.
- For primary classes, SLOs have been developed keeping in view higher order thinking.
- Instructions for teachers, textbook authors and assessment experts have been added.
Mathematics Grade 1 – 5
- Gradual progression in teaching approach from grade 1 – 5 – concrete – pictorial – abstract
- Focus on developing solid conceptual foundation based on logical reasoning
- Emphasis on linking Math with real life situations through examples and number stories
- Several suggested activities for each content area to promote learning
- Integration of ICT through web links and students-based tasks
- Alignment with Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) for the best teaching and assessment practices.
General Science Grade 4 – 5
- Signed in line with the latest global trends
- Practices in Science education
- Addition of Technology based content as separate chapters
- Integration of themes ethics, scientific responsibilities and care for the environment and all living beings
- Promotion of inquiry-based learning
- Integration of ICT into the curriculum through web links and project work
- Integration of STEAM as a cross cutting strand
Social Studies Grade 4 – 5
- Organization of the curriculum in 6 strands including Citizenship, History, Government, Economics, Culture and Geography
- Inclusion of national, global and digital citizenship education including rights and responsibilities
- New themes include local government, ancient civilizations, agriculture, entrepreneurship, anti-corruption
- Focus on democracy, patriotism and importance of rule of law
- Holistic development of students through integration of peaceful coexistence, acceptance, respect and appreciation of diversity